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Type: lexical
Meaning: '(with)in, beneath; very' (?)
Language: Celtic
Phonemic analysis: /an(d)e/-
From PIE: *h₁n̥d(ʰ)i
From Proto-Celtic: *andi
Attestation: anarekartos, anareuiśeos, anokopokios, anteśilu, esanekoti


The morpheme is frequently attested as first element of Gaulish compound personal names and toponyms (also as ando- with analogical o (?) as composition vowel and and- with syncope, maybe also ante- and ende-) (Holder 1896–1907: 139–151, KGP: 126–131, GPN: 136–141, DLG: 45 f., Delamarre 2007: 211 et passim, Wodtko 2013: 223).

Gaulish onomastic ande- is cognate with Ir. ind(-) 'in, into him/it' and W an(n)- 'in' < PIE *h₁n̥dʰi (Holder 1896–1907: 139, VKG I: 45, Thurneysen 1946: 521, IEW: 312, GPN: 136 f., Lejeune 1971: 105, n. 367, McCone 1996: 50, 70, 73, [42], 112, Prósper 2002: 351, 355) or *h₁n̥di (Schrijver 1991: 58, Zair 2012: 34, excluding Skr. ádhi from the list of cognates) 'therein' from the root *h₁en 'in' (while OIr. and 'there, then' / and- 'in him/it' < *h₁n̥dom; McCone 1996: 73, [42], 112, Matasović 2009 s.v. *andom). See also in-. On the weakening of i to e in the auslauts of certain prepositions see VKG: I 40, 256, CCCG: 4, 68, Lejeune 1971: 119, n. 411, Lambert 1994: 41, Uhlich 2010: 145–149 (and cf. are-, ate-) – ando- possibly < *h₁n̥do- (cf. OLat. endo, Hitt. anda, Schrijver 1991: 58 f., Zair 2012: 34)?

A meaning 'in' can be argued in most names, e.g., andebrocirix 'king in the territory' (KGP: 127), andegenus 'bearing the lineage within', andecamulus 'having Camulus [Mars] within', andocombogios 'having a warrior within' (KGP: 58). The frequently encountered identification of Gaul. ande- as an intensive prefix (Holder 1896–1907: 139, Dillon 1944: 103–105, Thurneysen 1946: 521, GPN: 136 f., Lejeune & Marichal 1977: 167, DLG: 45, Uhlich 2007: 376) stems from the comparison with the intensive prefixes Ir. an-, W an-/en-, which are of uncertain origin (LEIA: A-70, De Bernardo Stempel 1987: 73–75). This intensive function is exemplified with names like anderoudus 'very red' (Holder 1896–1907: 145), andecarus 'very dear'; cf. also anareuiśeos 'having great foresight' (or 'having foresight within'?), anteśilu 'very hot(-tempered)' (or 'having fire within'?), andocombogios 'very warrior-like'? andecamulus 'very like Camulus' (Holder 1896–1907: 140)? Hamp 1973: 166 accounts for the apparent different meanings by assuming homophony in Gaulish of two etyma ande-, some cognate with the intensives (including OIr. and- in andfocul 'habitual saying', andglondas 'habitual cruelty') and some with the forms < *h₁n̥dʰi.

The discussion also involves the possible lexical attestation in the Gaulish Chamalières inscription L-100 andedíon, which, according to the different possible meanings of ande-, has been interpreted as 'in whom a god is' (Schmidt 1979: 288 with n. 6), as 'very divine' (cf. Lambert 1994: 153), and as 'god of the underworld' (OIr. andé 'id.') based on a primary meaning of ande- 'below' (cf. anderon < *h₁n̥dʰero- in the same text; Lambert 1979: 141–144, Lambert 1985: 157, Lambert 1994: 153; Lambert 1994: 97 considers the function of ande- as an intensive prefix in (certain) personal names to be an extension of the primary meaning 'below').

Gaulish ande/o- appears as ⟨ane⟩/⟨ano⟩ in all (putative) instances in Cisalpine Celtic, which indicates the weakening or complete assimilation of the stop [ande] (Stifter) or [anne] (Lejeune 1971: 105, n. 367, Uhlich 2007: 376); see The Cisalpine Celtic Languages on the frequent non-spelling of /d/ in the (historical) cluster /nd/ and its implications for Cisalpine Celtic sound change.

Corinna Salomon


AcS Alfred Holder, Alt-Celtischer Sprachschatz, Leipzig: Teubner 1896-1907. (3 volumes)
CCCG Henry Lewis, Holger Pedersen, A Concise Comparative Celtic Grammar, 3rd edition with the supplement of 1961 by Henry Lewis, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1989 [reprint of 1974].
De Bernardo Stempel 1987 Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel, Die Vertretung der indogermanischen liquiden und nasalen Sonanten im Keltischen, Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck 1987.
Delamarre 2007 Xavier Delamarre, Noms de personnes celtiques dans l'épigraphie classique. Nomina Celtica Antiqua Selecta Inscriptionum, Paris: Errance 2007.
Dillon 1944 Myles Dillon, "The negative and intensive prefixes in Irish and the origin of Modern Irish an 'very; great'", Transactions of the Philological Society (1944), 94–107.
DLG Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental, 2nd, revised edition, Paris: Errance 2003.
GPN David Ellis Evans, Gaulish Personal Names. A Study of Continental Celtic Formations., Oxford: Clarendon Press 1967.