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Type: lexical
Meaning: 'winter'
Language: Celtic
Phonemic analysis: /g(i)am/-
From PIE: *gʰi̯em- 'winter'
From Proto-Celtic: *gi̯em- 'winter'
Attestation: ciami


Lexically in OIr. gaim, OW gaem, MW gaeaf, OCorn. goyf, OBret. guoiam etc., all 'winter'; see Schrijver 1995: 101, 108 ff., 279 f., Stüber 2005: 100, De Vaan 2008: 284, Matasović 2009 s.v. *gyemo-, NIL: 162–165 (with n. 7) for discussions of the developments in detail. The Coligny calender attests the Gaulish name of the seventh month giamonis or giamonios (< *gʰi̯em-on-, DLG: 179, NIL: 163–169 with n. 38). Common element in Gaulish personal names, e.g. RIG M-178–180 giamilos, giamos, giama, giamius, giamillus, giamatus, giamonius etc. (AcS I: 2017–2019, Lochner von Hüttenbach 1989: 82, DLG: 178 f., Stüber 2005: 68, 70, Delamarre 2007: 222 et passim, Stüber et al. 2009: 257, 272), also Celtib. iamius (Villar & Prósper 2005: 266) and Ogam CIIC 191 gamicunas (gen., McManus 1991: 105, Ogham in 3D).

Corinna Salomon, Michela Vignoli


AcS Alfred Holder, Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz, Leipzig: Teubner 1896–1907.
CIIC R[obert] A[lexander] S[tewart] Macalister, Corpus inscriptionum insularum Celticarum, Dublin: Stationery Office 1945–1949.
Delamarre 2007 Xavier Delamarre, Noms de personnes celtiques dans l'épigraphie classique. Nomina Celtica Antiqua Selecta Inscriptionum, Paris: Errance 2007.
De Vaan 2008 Michiel De Vaan, Etymological dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages [= Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 7], Leiden, Boston: Brill 2008.
DLG Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental, 2nd, revised edition, Paris: Errance 2003.