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Type: lexical
Meaning: 'in'-
Language: Celtic
Phonemic analysis: /in/
From PIE: *h₁en(i) 'in'
From Proto-Celtic: *en(i) 'in'
Attestation: ina, inou, inutu


Lexically in OIr. i, OW in, MW yn, MBret. en, Corn. yn 'in', Celtib. eni, Gaul. in (RIG L-13 in alisiia, L-79 in alixia, L-98 insinde, incors, Lambert & Pilon 2018, see Matasović 2009 s.v. *eni, Dunkel 2014: 221–236) and the compounds essedon 'chariot', Galat. (Hes.) embrekton 'kind of drink', and sporadically in Gaulish personal names (e.g. inderca etc., Stüber 2005: 78, indutio etc.). in(-) can be from en(-) as well as from the locatival derivation eni(-), as attested in Celtiberian, with loss of final -i. en > in arose in sandhi with the following word starting with an obstruent (enT > inT, McCone 1996: X).

Archaic/locatival eni is thought to appear prefixed in names like enigenus, enibinus, eniboudius, hypocoristic enico (see AcS I: 1438, Delamarre 2007: X). The restricted distribution of these names only in the Alpes Maritimae and Pannonia sheds doubt on their status as strictly Celtic formations, though enigenus 'in-born, legitimate' corresponds exactly to Ogam CIIC 362 inigena, OIr. ingen 'daughter' < *enigenā. Schmidt KGP: 206–208 concludes that eni- is a genuine Gaulish archaic form which was preserved in contact areas with IE languages which also had the suffix and similar onomastic formations. See also DLG: 163 s.v. eni- > in, Meid 2005: 172 f., Lochner von Hüttenbach 1989: 85 f. on ingenuus.

See also ande-.

Corinna Salomon


AcS Alfred Holder, Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz, Leipzig: Teubner 1896–1907.
CIIC R[obert] A[lexander] S[tewart] Macalister, Corpus inscriptionum insularum Celticarum, Dublin: Stationery Office 1945–1949.
Delamarre 2007 Xavier Delamarre, Noms de personnes celtiques dans l'épigraphie classique. Nomina Celtica Antiqua Selecta Inscriptionum, Paris: Errance 2007.
DLG Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental, 2nd, revised edition, Paris: Errance 2003.
Dunkel 2014 George E. Dunkel, Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme, Heidelberg: Winter 2014.