Property:alphabet

From Lexicon Leponticum
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Description: Defines the regional variant of the North Italic script in inscriptions.
Type: String
Allows value: Este alphabet, Magrè alphabet, Sanzeno alphabet, Lepontic alphabet, Venetic alphabet


Definition

See Property:script for the difference between scripts and alphabets according to LexLep terminology. What is termed "North Italic script" in LexLep appears in a number of variants or "alphabets". These alphabets can to some extent be described, distinguished and even derived from each other, but are still so similar that the absence of certain schibboleth characters precludes the ascription of any single document of writing to a specific variety. For practical purposes, any specification within the North Italic script (which excludes Camunic writing) which is possible in the inscriptions in LexLep is registered on the "alphabet" level. The values of the Property:alphabet are therefore not all on the same hierarchical level (e.g., the Este alphabet is a subtype of the Venetic alphabet).
The value of the Property:alphabet is given in brackets after the value of the Property:script.
The information below focuses on the main characteristics by which inscriptions are assigned to alphabets. See North Italic Script for details about the North Italic alphabets.

Lugano alphabet

The Lugano alphabet is graphically close to the Etruscan script; distinguishing features include particular shapes of san, upright alpha, and the presence of omicron. With regard to the clear association of the Lugano alphabet with Celtic literacy in Northern Italy, all inscriptions which are filed as being written in the North Italic script are by default also filed as being written in the Lugano alphabet, unless there are reasons which speak againt this ascription.

Character variants filed as belonging to the Lepontic alphabet in LexLep:

Venetic alphabet

Used as a cover term for the various local alphabets used to write the Venetic language (e.g., Archaic Venetic, Este alphabet, Padua alphabet), which differ from each other most clearly by their use of different letters for writing dentals (see below sub "Este alphabet"). As a group, the Venetic alphabets are distinguished mainly by syllabic punctuation, to a lesser extent also by inverted upsilon and lambda, and pi with two bars P s, and a unique form of heta.

Character variants filed as belonging to an undefined Venetic alphabet in LexLep: A22.pngA22d.pngA23.pngA23d.pngA24.pngA24d.pngE.pngEd.pngI.pngId.pngK.pngK4.pngK4d.pngK5.pngK5d.pngKd.pngL.pngL2.pngL2d.pngLd.pngM.pngM4.pngM4d.pngMd.pngN.pngNd.pngO.pngOd.pngP4.pngP4d.pngR.pngR3.pngR3d.pngRd.pngS.pngSd.pngT.pngT7.pngT7d.pngTd.pngU.pngU3.pngU3d.pngUd.pngV.pngVd.pngZ.pngZ11.pngZ11d.pngZ6.pngZ6d.pngZd.pngaddA1.pngaddA1d.pngaddA3.pngaddA3d.pngaddZ1.pngaddΦ1.pngpunctuation.pngpunctuationd.pngΘ.pngΘ3.pngΘ3d.pngΘd.pngΨ4.pngΨ4d.png

Este alphabet

See above sub "Venetic alphabet". The Este alphabet can be identified by the use of zeta for /d/.

Character variants filed as belonging to the Este alphabet in LexLep:

Magrè alphabet

The Magrè alphabet is close to and not easily distinguishable from the Venetic alphabets, featuring similar forms of upsilon, lambda and pi. Apart from its association with the Raetic language and consequent lack of omicron, characteristics which may be useful in distinguishing the Magrè alphabet from the Venetic group are mu with only three bars, retrograde sigma and alpha, heta with three bars, the character Þ s, and the fact that syllabic punctuation is only used erratically.

Character variants filed as belonging to the Magrè alphabet in LexLep: A14.pngA14d.pngA22.pngA22d.pngA23.pngA23d.pngA24.pngA24d.pngA26.pngA26d.pngA8.pngA8d.pngA9.pngA9d.pngE.pngE2.pngE2d.pngE6.pngE6d.pngEd.pngI.pngId.pngK.pngK4.pngK4d.pngK5.pngK5d.pngK7.pngK7d.pngKd.pngL2.pngL2d.pngM10.pngM10d.pngM4.pngM4d.pngN.pngN10.pngN10d.pngNd.pngP3.pngP3d.pngR.pngR3.pngR3d.pngRd.pngS.pngS2.pngS2d.pngSd.pngT.pngT7.pngT7d.pngTd.pngU10.pngU10d.pngU3.pngU3d.pngU9d.pngV.pngV2.pngV2d.pngVd.pngZ.pngZd.pngaddT1.pngpunctuation.pngpunctuationd.pngΨ.pngΨ4.pngΨ4d.pngΨd.png

Sanzeno alphabet

The Sanzeno alphabet, which, like the Magrè alphabet, is so far only known to write linguistically Raetic languages, is graphically very similar to the Etruscan script and the Lepontic alphabet. It shares with the Magrè alphabet the lack of omicron, three-bar mu, and retrograde alpha and sigma (the latter being especially typical for the Sanzeno alphabet). Characteristic letter forms are tau T3 s, and Þ3 s.

Character variants filed as belonging to the Sanzeno alphabet in LexLep: A22.pngA22d.pngA23.pngA23d.pngA24.pngA24d.pngA7.pngA7d.pngE.pngE2.pngE2d.pngE6.pngE6d.pngEd.pngI.pngId.pngK.pngK4.pngK4d.pngK5.pngK5d.pngKd.pngL.pngLd.pngM10.pngM10d.pngM4.pngM4d.pngN.pngN10.pngN10d.pngNd.pngP.pngPd.pngR.pngR3.pngR3d.pngRd.pngS.pngSd.pngT.pngT7.pngT7d.pngTd.pngU.pngU2.pngU2d.pngU9.pngUd.pngV.pngV2.pngV2d.pngVd.pngaddT2.pngaddT2d.pngseparator.pngseparator2.pngseparator2d.pngseparator3.pngseparator3d.pngseparatord.pngΨ.pngΨ4.pngΨ4d.pngΨd.png

Map

Distribution of North Italic inscriptions per alphabet:

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Marker 030.png Lepontic alphabet (161) Marker 150.png Sanzeno alphabet (0); Marker 180.png Magrè alphabet (0); Marker 210.png Venetic alphabets (0);

Statistics

Number of pages in the Category:Inscription (171) per "alphabet":

alphabet occurrence  
Magrè alphabet
0 0.00 % show list
Sanzeno alphabet
0 0.00 % show list
Este alphabet
1 0.58 % PD·1
Lepontic alphabet
165 96.49 % show list
Venetic alphabet
5 2.92 % show list


Number of pages in the Category:File (235) per "alphabet":

alphabet occurrence  
Magrè alphabet
72 30.63 % show list
Sanzeno alphabet
65 27.65 % show list
Este alphabet
0 0.00 % show list
Lepontic alphabet
216 91.91 % show list
Venetic alphabet
66 28.08 % show list
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Showing 4 related entities.

The request is being processed and may take a moment. Preparing ...
{ "type": "PROPERTY_CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA", "constraints": { "type_constraint": "_txt", "allowed_values": [ "Magrè alphabet", "Sanzeno alphabet", "Este alphabet", "Lepontic alphabet", "Venetic alphabet" ] } }