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Type: lexical
Meaning: 'god'
Language: Celtic
Phonemic analysis: /dē/-
From PIE: *dei̯u̯o- 'god'
From Proto-Celtic: *dei̯u̯o- 'god'
Attestation: teu, teuoχtoni(o)n, tiou, śium


Lexically in OIr. día, OW duiu, OCorn. duy, MBret. doe 'god' (LEIA: D-64, Matasović 2009 s.v. *dēwo-), and well attested in variants deuo-, deo-, diuo-, dio-, deio- in Continental Celtic personal names, as usually first, but also second element in compounds (e.g. deuognata, deuorix, sacrodiuus) and in simplex names (e.g. deuiatis, deuilla, deuus, deuuonis) as well as toponyms (AcS I: 1274–1276, KGP: 190 f., GPN: 191–193, Lochner von Hüttenbach 1989: 67 f., DLG: 142 f., Meid 2005: 229 f., Stüber 2005: 103 f., Delamarre 2007: 219 et passim, Stüber et al. 2009: 252, 273). The glide was dropped in deo-/dio- (cf. biu̯o- > bio-); the variation between e and i (and sporadic ei) may be due to Latin influence, dialectal variation, or the closed pronunciation of /ē/. The etymological diphthong is preserved in Celtib. onomastic teiuo- (K.6.1 teiuoreikis, K.1.3 teiuantikum, see MLH V.1: 372 f.). From PIE *dei̯u̯o- 'god' as well attested throughout the Indogermania (IEW: 184 f., NIL: 72).

Corinna Salomon


AcS Alfred Holder, Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz, Leipzig: Teubner 1896–1907.
Delamarre 2007 Xavier Delamarre, Noms de personnes celtiques dans l'épigraphie classique. Nomina Celtica Antiqua Selecta Inscriptionum, Paris: Errance 2007.
DLG Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental, 2nd, revised edition, Paris: Errance 2003.