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Type: lexical
Meaning: 'to; very'
Function: intensifying
Language: Celtic
Phonemic analysis: /ad/-
From PIE: *h₂ed 'to, at'
From Proto-Celtic: *ad- 'to'
Attestation: akluśamoualos, atep, atepa, ateporix, atepu, aśkoneti, aśkonetio, aśmina, aśuesa


The morpheme is frequently attested as first element of Gaulish compound personal names and ethnonyms (Holder 1896–1907 I: 37, KGP: 111–117, GPN: 128–131, DLG: 31, Delamarre 2007: 209 f. et passim, Matasović 2009 s.v., Wodtko 2013: 221 f., Dunkel 2014 II: 9 [*ad]). Cf. OIr. ad- 'to' etc. Its meaning is likely to be 'to' in compounds with verbal or substantive bases, while an intensifying function is common in compounds with adjectives.

Corinna Salomon


AcS Alfred Holder, Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz, Leipzig: Teubner 1896–1907.
Delamarre 2007 Xavier Delamarre, Noms de personnes celtiques dans l'épigraphie classique. Nomina Celtica Antiqua Selecta Inscriptionum, Paris: Errance 2007.
DLG Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental, 2nd, revised edition, Paris: Errance 2003.
Dunkel 2014 George E. Dunkel, Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme, Heidelberg: Winter 2014.