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Attestation: VC·1.2 (akisios:arkatokok/materekos:toṣ́o/kote:aṭom:teuoχ/tom:koneu) (1)
Language: Cisalpine Gaulish
Word Type: verb

Grammatical Categories: 3rd sg. past

Morphemic Analysis: to-ts-om-kon-d-e
Phonemic Analysis: totsomkonde
Meaning: 'has given it'


Corresponds to Lat. quem dedit in the only attestation. Analysis based on Koch 1983: 187 f., who compares OIr. formations and segments the form into preverb to- + infixed pronoun + prefective preverb kon- + stem + ending. In the verbal stem ded-, the reduplicating syllable is suppressed following two preverbs (Eska 1990: 88); on the form and function of the proleptic infixed pronoun -stom- in the accusative and with apheresis see Eska 1990b: 193–195 and Eska 2001, and cf. iśos. See also Pisani 1979: 50 f., DLG: 299, Villar & Prósper 2005: 205, Eska 2004: 869, Eska 2007: 191 f., Stifter 2010: 370, Stifter 2014: 207, Uhlich 2007: 388, n. 34. Alternative interpretations in Meid 1989: 14–16. Already Lejeune 1977: 600.


DLG Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental, 2nd, revised edition, Paris: Errance 2003.
Eska 1990 Joseph F. Eska, "The so-called weak or dental preterite in Continental Celtic, Watkins' law, and related matters", Historische Sprachforschung 103 (1990), 81–91.
Eska 1990b Joseph F. Eska, "Two notes on Continental Celtic", Études Celtiques 27 (1990), 191–195.
Eska 2001 Joseph Francis Eska, "Further to Vercelli śo=", Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 52 (2001), 134-136.
Eska 2004 Joseph F. Eska, "Continental Celtic", in: Roger D. Woodard (ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages, Cambridge: CUP 2004, 847–880.