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Proper name: Inscription from Voltino [part 2 of 2]
Reading in transliteration: θomezecuai / obauzanaθina
Reading in original script: Θ4 dO2 dM7 dE dZ10 dE dC dU3 dA dI d
O2 dB dA dU3 dZ9 dA dN7 sA dΘ4 d I dN7 sA d
Variant reading: θomezeclai / obalza naθina (Thurneysen, Eska),
: omezecụai / obauzana : ina (separator5 d taken as separator, Morandi),
θoMe þeCuai ośau saNaθiNa (Zavaroni),
θome zecAai oBau zanaθina (Schürr)

Object: BS·3 Voltino (stela)
(Inscriptions: BS·3.1, BS·3.2)
Position: front, lower area"lower area" is not in the list (front, back, left-hand side, right-hand side, centre, top, bottom, neck, shoulder, foot, ...) of allowed values for the "position" property.
Frame: straightFrame middle bottom.pngFrame middle bottom.pngstraight  (left: straight, middle: bottom, right: straight)
Direction of writing: dextroverse
Script: Camunic Script"Camunic Script" is not in the list (Greek script, Etruscan script, Latin script, North Italic script, Camunic script, none, unknown) of allowed values for the "script" property.
Number of letters: 20–22
Number of lines: 2
Workmanship: carved, painted
Condition: complete

Archaeological culture: Augustan [from object]
Date of inscription: end of 1st century BC / beginning of 1st century AD [from object]

Type: unknown
Language: unknown
Syntactic analysis: unknown
Meaning: unknown

Alternative sigla: Whatmough 1933 (PID): 249
Morandi 2004: 233 5-6

Sources: Zavaroni 2008: 18-35
Schürr 2007: 335-345
Morandi 2004: 670-671 & 806 (pl. XXIX)
Eska & Weiss 1996: 289-291



Reading and interpretations ambiguous. Script: Camunic Script (Alphabet of Sondrio), although M and N are neither properly Latin nor Camunic; C is a Latin character; the four a's are of the Lepontic tipe (Zavaroni 2008: 20-23, Schürr 2007: 336, 337-340 cf. De Marinis 1992: 160-161, Tibiletti Bruno 1990: 165, Prosdocimi 1965). In the past this inscription has undergone many interpretation attempts (cf. Zavaroni 2008: 18-19, Schürr 2007: 336-337 for a summary):

Thurneysen 1923: 8-9, followed by Meid 1989: 17-26, Eska 1989: 106-107, Tibiletti Bruno 1978: 218-219 ecc. read "tomezeclai obalzanatina"; segmented by Eska & Weiss 1996 (cp. Eska & Evans 2009: 35) "to=me=declai obalda natina" (transl. "Obalda; (their) dear daughter; set me (the monument) up"; for syntax discussion cf. Zavaroni 2008: 23-24, Eska 1989, Koch 1983: 200-201, Koch 1985: 24-25, Thurneysen 1923: 8-10). This interpretation as Celtic inscription is based on an old reading and the interpretations of θomezecuai (cp. Schürr 2007: 336-337). Zavaroni (2008: 23-31) and Schürr (2007: 341-345) put forward, that it could be a double onomastic formula, once Gaulish-/Latinised and once Camunic/Euganeic, where tetumus = θome, sanadis = zanaθina. For Etruscan parallels see Zavaroni 2008: 23, CIE: 1416, CIE: 890, CIE: 1048. Regarding the possibly determinable, yet poorly known Camunic/Euganeic language see Schürr 2006: 341-342, 345, fn. 17.

  • Weisgerber 1931: 154-155 (old reading tomedeclai obalda natina, Thurneysen)
  • cf. also Markey & Mees 2004: 74, Eska & Weiss 1996: 289-90, Mees 2003: Stratum and Shadow. A Genealogy of Stratigraphy Theories from the Indo-Euopean West, in Language Contacts in Prehistory: Studies in Stratigraphy, 11-14 ("Etruscoid", "Kelto-Ligurian", "Para-Rhaetic")

For the script, cp. also the Latin inscription CIL 5, 4717 (Brixia/Brescia) which has three 'Camunoid' letters at its end.
Further References:


CIE Carl Pauli, Olof August Danielsson et al. (eds.), Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum. (3 volumes, various parts)
De Marinis 1992 Raffaele C. De Marinis, "Il territorio prealpino e alpino tra i Laghi di Como e di Garda dal Bronzo recente alla fine dell'età del Ferro", in: Ingrid R. Metzger, Paul Gleirscher (eds), Die Räter / I Reti, Bozen: Athesia 1992, 145–174.
Eska & Evans 2009 Joseph F. Eska, David Ellis Evans, "Continental Celtic", in: Martin J. Ball, Nicole Müller (eds), The Celtic Languages, 2nd edition, London – New York: Routledge 2009, 28–53.
Eska & Weiss 1996 Joseph Francis Eska, Michael Weiss, "Segmenting Gaul. tomedeclai", Studia Celtica 30 (1996), 289-292.
Eska 1989 Joseph Francis Eska, "Interpreting the Gaulish inscription of Voltino", Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 36 (1989), 106-107.
Eska 1998c Josef Francis Eska, "PIE *p (doesn't become) Ø in proto Celtic", Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 58 (1998), 63-80.