are-

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Type: lexical
Meaning: 'in front, before, near, east of'
Language: Celtic
Phonemic analysis: /are/-
From PIE: *pr̥h₂-i 'in front'
From Proto-Celtic: *ari 'in front'
Attestation: anarekartos, anareuiśeos

Commentary

Well-attested Celtic prefix/preposition (OIr. air, W ar-/er-, Bret. ar, LEIA: A-37 f.). In Gaulish, are- is amply attested as prefix in ethnic and place names: aremorici 'those before/by the sea' (thus in Endlicher's glossary: aremorici: antemarini. qui are: ante), aresequani 'those by the Seine', arelate > Arles '(place) by the moor' (see DLG: 52). Clear instances in personal names are rarer (e.g., aremagios), but many opaque names in ar° may contain the prefix (with syncopated e) (see KGP: 132–134, Delamarre 2007: 211 et passim, Wodtko 2013: 223 f.). On the weakening of i to e in the auslauts of certain prepositions see VKG: I 40, 256, CCCG: 4, 68, Lejeune 1971: 119, n. 411, Lambert 1994: 41, Uhlich 2010: 145–149, and cf. ande-, ate-). An attestation of are as preposition in Gaulish was suggested by Corthals, but judged unconvincing by Delamarre DLG: 52.

In Cisalpine Celtic, are- is attested twice as part of the morpheme syntagma ande-are- in personal names (one Cisalpine Gaulish, the other of uncertain ascription).

Corinna Salomon

Bibliography

CCCG Henry Lewis, Holger Pedersen, A Concise Comparative Celtic Grammar, 3rd edition with the supplement of 1961 by Henry Lewis, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1989 [reprint of 1974].
Delamarre 2007 Xavier Delamarre, Noms de personnes celtiques dans l'épigraphie classique. Nomina Celtica Antiqua Selecta Inscriptionum, Paris: Errance 2007.
DLG Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental, 2nd, revised edition, Paris: Errance 2003.