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Attestation: NM·2 (anarekartoṣ) (1)
Language: Celtic
Word Type: proper noun
Semantic Field: personal name

Grammatical Categories: nom. sg. masc.
Stem Class: o

Morphemic Analysis: and-are-kart-os
Phonemic Analysis: /andarekartos/
Meaning: 'Anarekartos'


Analysed as ande-are-kartos by Whatmough PID III: 4, followed by KGP: 126, 164, GPN: 166, Lejeune 1971: 126, n. 434, Tibiletti Bruno 1978: 161 f., Marinetti & Prosdocimi 1994: 38 f., Morandi 2004: 489, Uhlich 2007: 384.

The ande- 'in'/'very' and are- 'by, before' are both attested amply as first elements of compound names; the syntagma and-are- is also attested in the Cisalpine Gaulish name anareuiśeos, which lends itself to a satisfying interpretation which supports Whatmough's analysis. In anarekartos, the semantically unclear last element precludes an interpretation of the name's semantics. The preposition OIr. air = Gaul. are is used as preverb with OIr. (s)cart- in the meaning 'chase (away)' (LEIA: S-34 f.), which may indicate a name from the sphere of war and battle ('great banisher' vel sim). Morandi 2004: 489, comparing -kartos with Greek κράτος 'strenght', translates the name as "fortissimo".

It cannot be determined whether the single attestation of anarekartos is in Lepontic or Cisalpine Gaulish context (see NM·2). Lejeune 1971: 105, n. 367, ascribes it to Cisalpine Gaulish on the assumption that ande- < PIE h₁n̥dhi and > en in Lepontic. Cf. also Tibiletti Bruno 1965b: 564, n. 21.

See also Markey 2007, who segments ana-rek-artos '(having) very bright bear(s)', and Poccetti 2018, who compares anare- with the (philologically reconstructed) ethnonym anares (south of Piacenza) in Polybios – this identification is incompatible with the analysis of the sequence as a prefix syntagma.

Corinna Salomon


Conway et al. 1933 Robert Seymour Conway, Joshua Whatmough, Sarah Elizabeth Johnson, The Prae-Italic Dialects of Italy. Vol. III: Indexes, London: Oxford University Press 1933.