From Lexicon Leponticum
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Reading in transliteration: nosarti : kpamuram : poinunei :
Reading in original script: Ś sO3 sseparator6 sI sE sN sU sN sI sO3 sP sseparator6 sM4 sA sR sU sM4 sA sP sK sseparator6 sI sT sR sA sS2 sO3 sN s
Variant reading: nosarti : klamuram : poinunei : oś
Ś sO3 sseparator6 sI sE sN sU sN sI sO3 sP sseparator6 sM4 sA sR sU sM4 sA sL2 sK sseparator6 sI sT sR sA sS2 sO3 sN s

Object: BG·41 Carona (rock)
(Inscriptions: BG·41.1, BG·41.2, BG·41.3, BG·41.4, BG·41.5, BG·41.6, BG·41.7, BG·41.8, BG·41.9, BG·41.10, BG·41.11, BG·41.12, BG·41.13, BG·41.14, BG·41.15, BG·41.16, BG·41.17, BG·41.18, BG·41.19, BG·41.20, BG·41.21, BG·41.22, BG·41.23, BG·41.24, BG·41.25, BG·41.26, BG·41.27, BG·41.28, BG·41.29, BG·41.30)
Position: unknown
Direction of writing: sinistroverse
Script: North Italic Script"North Italic Script" is not in the list (Greek script, Etruscan script, Latin script, North Italic script, Camunic script, none, unknown) of allowed values for the "script" property.
Letter height: 2.2–6.1 cm0.866 in <br />2.402 in <br />
Number of letters: 28
Number of words: 4
Number of lines: 1
Workmanship: carved
Condition: complete

Archaeological culture: unknown [from object]
Date of inscription:

Type: votive
Language: Celtic
Meaning: unknown

Alternative sigla: none

Sources: Casini & Fossati 2013: 380 (no. 11)


First published in Casini et al. 2008: 80, 99 (no. 11).

Images in Casini et al. 2008: 90, fig. 21 (photo) and 91, fig. 22 (drawing = Casini & Fossati 2013: 390, fig. 11).

Length 49 cm. The first word was originally read noiarti (Casini et al. 2008, Casini & Fossati 2013), but changed to nosarti after re-examination of the inscription in 2014 (Casini et al. 2014: 185). The authors do not mention the shape of the letter, but, judging from the photograph, it appears to be S2 s. The second word was originally read klamuram (Casini et al. 2008), but changed to kpamuram in Casini & Fossati 2013. The letter in question consists in a hasta with a prolonged bar on top, i.e. either pi or inverted lambda. P s is certainly pi in poinunei, so it should be interpreted thus in all instances. Inverted lambda is not unknown in the Lepontic alphabet, but rare and not combined with pi in the same shape. However, {{w||klamuram} is more plausible phonetically. P s would have to be considered a misspelling here, unless the prolonged bar is a distinctive feature (but lambda addL1 s or U10 s is a chimera in both the Raetic (Steinberg) and the Lepontic alphabets; see L).

The inscription contains the name of the deity Poeninos in the dative, and can therefore be classified as a votive text. The rest of the text is obscure. Motta in Casini et al. 2008: 99 interprets nosarti (noiarti) as a verb 'gives', 'dedicates'. He considers klamuram to be the direct object of the sentence, and suspends judgement on . The analysis is plausible, as far as the endings are concerned, but no etymologies are offered. The lack of a dedicant's name and the present-tense verb are conspicuous. Note that the verb would be in first position, as assumed by Motta for ześu in BG·41.5 and BG·41.34.


Casini & Fossati 2013 Stefania Casini, Angelo Fossati, "Incisioni rupestri e iscrizioni preromane a Carona, Val Brembana (Bergamo)", Bulletin d'Études Prehistoriques et Archéologiques Alpines 24 (2013), 377–392.
Casini et al. 2008 Stefania Casini, Angelo Fossati, Filippo Motta, "Incisioni protostoriche e iscrizioni leponzie su roccia alle sorgenti del Brembo (Val Camisana di Carona, Bergamo). Note preliminari", Notizie Archeologice Bergomensi 16 (2008), 75–101.
Casini et al. 2014 Stefania Casini, Angelo E. Fossati, Filippo Motta, "Nuove iscrizioni in alfabeto di Lugano sul masso Camisana 1 di Carona (Bergamo)", Notizie Archeologiche Bergomensi 22 (2014), 179–203.