From Lexicon Leponticum
Jump to navigationJump to search
Reading in transliteration: tunal / koimila
Reading in original script: L sA2 sN10 sU sT s
A sL sI sM10 sI sO2 sK s

Object: VB·26 Stresa (stela)
Position: top, front
Frame: allall  (left: none, middle: all, right: none)
Direction of writing: sinistroverse
Script: North Italic script (Lepontic alphabet)
adapted to: Latin script
Letter height: 5–7 cm1.969 in <br />2.756 in <br />
Number of letters: 12
Number of words: 2
Number of lines: 2
Workmanship: carved
Condition: complete

Archaeological culture: La Tène D 2 [from object]
Date of inscription: 1st c. BC [from object]

Type: funerary
Language: unknown
Meaning: unknown

Alternative sigla: Whatmough 1933 (PID): 301
Tibiletti Bruno 1981: 16
Solinas 1995: 125
Morandi 2004: 69

Sources: Morandi 2004: 565–567 no. 69



First published in Ferrero 1889: 262 (e). Examined for LexLep on 24th April 2024.

Images in Ferrero 1889: 262 (drawing), Ponti 1896: 153, no. 186 (drawing from Fabretti's calque), Ferrero 1897: 57 (drawing from Fabretti's calque = Danielsson 1909: 28), Caramella & De Giuli 1993: 210 (drawing).

Inscribed in two lines between three horizontal frame lines, the uppermost ca. 25 cm from the top of the stela (length line 1 26 cm, line 2 27 cm, height of both frame parts 8.5 cm). Despite surface damage, the letters can be cleary identified under raking light. The reading with Latin nu and (inverted) mu goes back to Ferrero 1897: 57 f., no. 1. Whatmough PID 107, no. 301, notes correctly that nu is in fact inverted Lepontic N10 s, the first hasta being higher than the bars forming the angle; the form thus constitutes a missing link between Lepontic and inverted/retrograde Latinoid nu in VB·27 and VB·22. More difficult is Whatmough's assertion that, similarly, mu in line 2 is inverted M10 s rather than inverted Latin M7 s – the first hasta is indeed straighter, but only insignificantly longer than the following ones. Inverted Latin M7 s is otherwise only attested (debatably) in the Voltino innscription, but three- rather than regular Lepontic four bar mu would arguably still be due to Latin influence. It can be argued that a neat distinction between Lepontic vs. Latin forms of mu and nu through the relative lengths of the lines of the zig-zag shapes was of little to no relevance to the writers of these inscriptions. Inverted letters are notably common on the Stresa gravestones, see beside VB·22 and VB·27 also VB·23.

Discussion of -al already there and in Danielsson 1909: 28 f. (koimi latunal(i), thus also Jacobsohn 1927: 30, no. 188, and Whatmough PID 107, no. 301), Rhŷs 1913: 53 f., no. 3 (koimila tunal(a)), Terracini 1927: 146, Pisani 1964: 282 f., no. 119 E (koimila tunal), Tibiletti Bruno 1978c: 23 f., Tibiletti Bruno 1978: 152, Tibiletti Bruno 1981: 169 f., no. 16 (tunal koimila), Solinas 1995: 374, no. 125, Morandi 2004: 565–567, no. 69.

See also Krahe 1936: 247, Untermann 1960: 305.

Corinna Salomon


Caramella & De Giuli 1993 Pierangelo Caramella, Alberto De Giuli, Archeologia dell'Alto Novarese, Mergozzo: Antiquarium Mergozzo 1993.
Danielsson 1909 Olof August Danielsson, Zu den venetischen und lepontischen Inschriften [= Skrifter utgivna av Kungliga Humanistiska Vetenskaps-Samfundet i Uppsala 13.1], Uppsala – Leipzig: 1909.
Ferrero 1889 Ermanno Ferrero, "Regione XI. (Transpadana)", Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità (1889), 261–262.
Ferrero 1897 Ermanno Ferrero, "Iscrizioni di Chignolo Verbano", Atti della Società di Archeologia e Belle Arti per la provincia di Torino 7 (1897), 56–60.